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 علم الصيدله

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المدير العام
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رقم العضوية : 1
الدولة : اليمن
الدولة :

sms sms : مرحبا بالاعضاء والزوار الكرام

الجنس الجنس : ذكر عدد المساهمات : 548
نقاط : 2788
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/09/2009
العمر : 27

مُساهمةموضوع: علم الصيدله   السبت أبريل 10, 2010 9:27 am

ما هو علم الصيدلة ؟

السلام عليكم
بناءاً على طلب الأخت ندا راح أضع بعض المعلومات البسيطة عن علم الصيدلة كمعلومات عامة لغير المتخصصين .بعد ذلك سأدخل في التخصص أكثر إن شاءالله ..
Pharmacy:
The art or practice of preparing and preserving drugs, and of compounding and dispensing medicines according to prescriptions of physicians; the occupation of an apothecary or a pharmaceutical chemist.
الصيدلة هي فن أو ممارسة تحضير وحفظ الأدوية , وظيفة الصيدلي هي تركيب وصرف الأدوية طبقاً لوصفة الطبيب ..
طبعاً هذا المفهوم تغير الآن لأنه علم الصيدلة تشعب وتفرع وبرزت فروع جديدة منه ..
نموذج لمنهج دراسي في كليات الصيدلة :
PHARMACY SYLLABUS OUTLINE
First Year
First Term:
1101 – Physics (2 + 3) الفيزياء
Heat, geometrical optics, physical optics, electricity, modern physics.
1201- Principles of Mathematics مبادئ الرياضيات
Algebra, linear equations & curve fitting, analytical geometry, probability & statistics, calculus including differentiation, integration & differential equations.
1401- Zoology (2 + 3) علم الحيوان
Life, chemical composition of protoplasm; importance; physical characteristics of protoplasm. Cell division. Mammalian physiology; Nutrition, digestion, metabolism, circulation, respiration, excretion, chemical and nervous coordination.
Principles of Taxonomy. Structure, biology and life cycle of the following phyta: Protozoo, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida and Arthopoda.
1501 – Pharm. Physical Chemistry (2 + 3) الكيمياء الفيزيائية الصيدلية
Liquid, solid, solutes of nonelectrolytes and electrolytes. Colligative properties, colloids, thermochemistry and thermodynamics.
1509 – Pharm. General Chemistry الكيمياء العامة الصيدلية
Equilibria Buffer , solubility products, complex ions, chemical bonding and introduction to organic reactions (alkanes, stereochemistry, unsaturated compounds).
1607 – English Language ( 2 + 0) اللغة الانجليزية
Part I : Basic study skills using symbols, abbreviations, words
parts, flow diagram, graphs, flow charts, tables, note
taking, understanding bibliography.
Part 2 : Integration and consolidation of basic study skills.
Second Term:
1102–Pharmaceutical and medical terminology (1+0) تسميات صيدلية وطبية
Definition of Pharmaceutical and Medical terms used in Pharmacy practice.
1202- Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry I(2 +3) الكيمياء العضوية الصيدلية ( 1)
Alkynes and conjugated dienes – Alkyl halides and neucleophilic substitutions – aromaticity and electrophilic substitutions – alcohols – ethers and phenols.
1204 – Computer (1+3) الحاسب الآلي
Introduction to computer, hardware & software, types, units, computer numerical system (DOS, UNIX, XENIX), windows, programs, programming through language, computer applications in pharmacy.
1302 – Botany and Medicinal Plants (2+3) النبات والنباتات الطبية Taxonomical characteristics of the important plant families. Plant cell differentiation and cell content. General macroscopical and microscopical characteristics of the morphological groups (leaf, flower, seed, fruit,… etc.)
1402 – Antomy and Histology (3+3) التشريح والهستولوجيا Skeleton and joints, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, urogenital system, CNS and endocrine system.
The cell. The epithelium, the connective tissue proper, blood, cartilage, muscular tissue, nervous tissue, the cardiovascular system, lymphatic system and the digestive tube.
1502 – Pharmaceutical analytical chemistry I (2+3) الكيمياء التحليلية الصيدلية (1) Qualitative analysis for certain pharmaceutical inorganic salts and their mixtures.
SECOND YEAR
First Semester
2103-Introduction to pharmaceutics (2+3) مقدمة علم الصيدلانيات
Survey of the professional pharmacy, dealing with it’s history, educational requirement, organization, regulation and current developments.
Introduction to prescription terminology and pharmacy calculations, emphasis on measurement systems, conversion, percentage preparations, calculation of doses, dilutions, milliequivalents and millimoles.
2205- Pharmaceutical organic chemistry II (3+3) الكيمياء العضوية الصيدلية (3) Nitrocompounds, amines, diazonium salts, amino acids & Aldehydes and keto phenols and quinines, carboxylic acid and their derivatives arylhalides.
2301 – Pharmacognosy I (2+3) عقاقير (1)
ٍStudy of the important drugs derived from barks, woods, leaves, flowers and seeds, (official definition, cultivation, collection, diagnostic characteristics. Active constituents, chemical tests and uses), qualitative chemical tests.
2403 – Physiology I (2+0) فسيولوجيا
Introduction to physiology, Blood, Autonomic nervous system, Excitable tissues, Renal system, Central nervous system.
2405 - First Aids (1+0) إسعاف أولي Surgical first aids, wounds, hemorrhage, shock, burns, fractures, bandaging, acute emergencies, syringes, their uses and practical applications.
2503 - Pharmaceutical analytical chemistry II (2+3) الكيمياء التحليلية الصيدلية (2)
An introduction to quantitative analysis, gravimetry, volumetry including neutralization, precipitation and complexametry.
Second Semester
2104- Physical Pharmacy (3+3) صيدلة فيزيائية
The application of physical chemistry principles to pharmaceutics: a fundamental introduction to solid, semisolid and liquid dosage forms, including powders, true solutions , colloids, suspensions, emulsions and semisolids.
2114 – Library & drug information (1+0)مكتبة ومصادر معلومات
Spectrum, types, handling of questions, information resources, literature evaluation, establishment of DIPC, sources, computerized drug information retrieval systems, internet, references, medical letters, study designs and clinical trails, professional literature.
2206 – Pharmaceutical organic chemistry III (3+3) الكيمياء العضوية الصيدلية (3) Carbohydrates, polynuclear compounds, Alicyclic compounds, spectroscopic methods for structure elucidation.
2306 – Pharmacognosy II(2+3) عقاقير (2)
Study of the important drugs derived from fruits, herbs, subterranean organs. Active constituents medicinal uses and qualitative chemical test. Unorganized drugs, surgical dressings and sutures. Diagnostic macro- and microscopical characteristics.
2404 – Physiology II (2+0)
Cardiovascular system, Gastrointestinal system, Endocrine system, Reproductive system and Respiratory system.
2408 – Biostatistics (1+0) إحصاء حيوي
Introduction , collection of data, graphical and mathematical presentation of data. Measure of central tendency and of dispersion. Interpretation of results. Regulation and special senses
2504 – Pharmaceutical analytical chemistry III (2+3) الكيمياء التحليلية الصيدلية (3)
Redox reaction and their application to quantitative analysis. Water and lipid analysis.
THIRD YEAR
First Semester:
3105 – Drug Dosage Forms (3+3) دراسة الأشكال الصيدلية
Formulation and quality control aspects of tablets, suppositories, sterile liquid products and semisolid products.
3109 – Principles of Marketing in Pharmacy (2+0) أساسيات التسويق الصيدلي
Understanding the environment of marketing in pharmacy, strategic planning for markets winning, analyzing marketing opportunities, analyzing customer behavior and customer satisfaction, developing new products, product life cycle and managing life-cycle strategies.
3115 – Psychology & Behavioral Sciences (1+0) سلوكيات وعلم نفس
Contemporary psychology, psychology processes, intelligence, personality, developmental psychology, behavior dynamics, group problems, mental health. Conflicts. Frustration & psychoses.
3307 – Evaluation of Crude Drugs (2+3) تقييم العقاقير الخام
Concept and methods of crude drug evaluation, microscopical physico-chemical, chromatographic , spectroscopic methods, General biosynthetic pathway of constituents. Microbial biotransformation. Methods of production of medicinal plants.
3505 – Instrumental Method of Analysis (2+3) التحليل الآلي
Use of absorption and emission spectrophotometry in quantitative analysis. Electrochemical methods of analysis including potentiometry, conductometry and polarography.
3703 – Pharmaceutical Microbiology I (2+3) ميكروبيولوجيا صيدلية (1)
An introduction to general microbiology, microbial genetics to study sterilization of pharmaceuticals and evaluation of antimicrobial agents (Disinfectants, Antiseptics, Preservatives and Antibiotics).Industrial microbiology.
3801 – General Biochemistry (2+3) كيمياء حيوية عامة
Introduction to Biochemistry – Structure and function of biomolecules. Protein structure and protein purification.. Enzyme kinetics, specificity and Allosteric regulation. Vitamins and coenzymes . DNA and genes, central Dogma, Gene Expression and regulation of Gene expression.
Second Term:
3106- Community Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Legislation (3+3)
صيدلة المجتمع وتشريعات صيدلية
Good dispensing practice for non-prescription (OTC) products. Appropriate product selection, monitoring and patient information Ethics, communications and legislations.
3108- Principles of Pharmaceutical Management (2+0) أساسيات الإدارة الصيدلية
Patient assessment and consultation, managers and managing, decision making and planning, motivation, leadership, groups and team work, selling and communication process.
3208-Medicinal Chemistry I(2+3) الكيمياء الطبية (1)
Fundamentals of medicinal chemistry and an introduction to the physiochemical properties of drugs relative to their biological effects.
Chemical and biochemical aspects of certain drug categories including : antiinfective agents, antineoplastics, antiviral drugs and diagnostic agents.
3704-Pharmaceutical Microbiology II(2+3) ميكروبيولوجيا صيدلية (2)
Review of the etiology, clinical picture and management of human parasitic infections. A survey on the epidemiology of communicable diseases, family planning and environmental health.
3802- Applied Biochemistry (2+3) كيمياء حيوية تطبيقية
Overview of metabolism. Glycolysis, TCA cycle, pintos phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Metabolism. Regulation of Metabolism. Diabetes Mellitus and associated Metabolic disorders. Metabolism of lipids, lipoprotein and related disorders. Amino acid metabolism. Porphyrin Metabolism. Enzymes of clinical importance. Non protein nitrogenous compounds. Electrolytes, Trace elements, Nutrition. DNA recombinant technology. Gene therapy. Medical biotechnology. Human genome project.
FOURTH YEAR
First Semester:
4309- Phytochemistry I (2+3) كيمياء عقاقير (1)
Different classes of bioactive constituents of crude drugs, emphasizing the definition, classification, preparation, molecular structures, physical and chemical characteristics, action, SAR, methods of quantitation. Carbohydrates and glycosides, essential oils and bitter principles, miscellaneous natural products.
4111- Principles and kinetics of drug stability(2+3) أسس وحركية ثبات الأدوية
Routes of drug degradation, principles and kinetics of chemical degradation. Stress stability testing. Means of prolonging shelf-life of pharmaceutical products.
4209- Medicinal Chemistry II(2+3) الكيمياء الطبية (2)
Chemical and Biological principles governing the properties of drugs.
Drugs categories include: drugs acting on CNS, drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system, antihistaminics, analgesics, local anesthetics and radiopharmaceuticals.
4407- Pharmacology I(3+3) علم الأدوية (1)
General Principles, drugs acting at the synaptic and neuroeffector transmission, autocoids including histamine, kinins, eicosanoids, angiotensins, serotonin, peptides and others, local anesthetics, drug acting on the blood and blood forming agents.
4707- Immunology and virology (2+3) المناعة والفيروسات
A survey of the immune system with special emphasis on vaccine development and study on the etiology, pathogenesis and management on the etiology of cancer.
Second Semester:
4108- Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics (2+3) الصيدلة الحيوية وحركية الدواء
Mathematical characterization of the processes of absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs. The application of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics.
4210- Medicinal Chemistry III (2+3) الكيمياء الطبية (3)
Chemical and biological aspects of certain drugs including: steroid drugs, cardiovascular agents, gastrointestinal drugs, respiratory drugs, diuretics, hypoglycemics, prostaglandins and vitamins.
4310- Phytochemistry II (2+3) كيمياء عقاقير (2)
Concerned with the study of medicinal plant alkaloids, tissue culture and cell suspension culture techniques, principles and applications of adsorption chromatography, partition chromatography, CC, PC and TLC.
4412 - Pharmacology II (3+3) علم الادوية (2)
Drugs affecting renal function, cardiac vascular pharmacology, Drugs acting on the central nervous system, drugs affecting uterine motility, analgesic antipyretic & anti-inflammatory agents, drugs in rheumatoid arthritis & gout, drugs in bronchial asthma, drugs in allergic disorders, drugs affecting gastrointestinal tract, cancer chemotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents.
4416 – Biological evaluation & screening of drugs (3+3) التقويم الحيوي والمسح الدولي
Organization of blind screening, in vitro and in vivo preparations, screening of cholinomimetics, muscarinic blocking drugs, adrenomimetics and antagonists, drugs affecting neuromuscular transmission, analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, CNS drugs, cardiovascular drugs, antiprotozoal and hormones and their autagonists.
FIFTH YEAR
First Semester:
5115 – Design and formulation of drug dosage forms (2+3)
تصميم وصياغة الأشكال الصيدلية
Principles of design and formulation problems encountered with the different types of dosage forms. Principles of the controlled release of drugs from polymer systems.
5221 - Electives (2+3) مقررات إختيارية
General principles, factorial toxicology, experimental & formal toxicology, reproductive toxicology and teratogenicity, genetic toxicology, chemical carcinogenesis, social toxicology, clinical toxicology, medical and drug poisoning, food, military, target organ, environmental & industrial , radiation and forensic toxicology.
5507- Drug quality control (3+3) رقابة دوائية
Control charts, methods assessment and selection, types of errors, quality control of chemical drug and bioproduts, monographs (chemical, microbiological , biological) from recent pharmacopoeiae.
2117- Pharmaceutical Technology (3+3) تكنولوجيا صيدلية
Powder technology (Granulation and pelletization ), tabletting, tablets and pellets coating, capsules, parenteral products, aerosols, suppositories, semisolids (topical preparations), encopsulation, preformulation, packaging of pharmaceutical products.
5901- Clinical pharmacy I (2+3) صيدلة إكلينيكية (1)
Pharmaceutical care, application, interpretation of clinical data, pathophysiol, information resources, side effects, drug induced diseases, drug interaction and contraindication. Pharmacotherapy in special population, clinical PCK and applications with aminoglycoside, digoxin, theophyline, lithium and diphenylhydantion .
Second Semester:
5116-
Hospital Pharmacy (2+3) صيدلة المستشفيات
Administrative and professional principles. Concepts and trends affecting hospital pharmacy.
5222- Elective (2+3) مقررات اختيارية
5118- Industrial Pharmacy (3+3) صيدلة صناعية
Introduction, quality control and GMP regulations. Unit operations (heat transfer, evaporation, drying crystallization, filtration, centrifugation, size reduction and separation, refrigeration, extraction, mixing and emulsification), air purification, materials of plant construction.
5902- Clinical Pharmacy II (2+3) صيدلة إكلينيكية
Therapeutics; cardiology, internal medicine, rheumatology and hematology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. Case studied and monitoring.
5412- Health policies (Essay) (2+0) سياسات صحية (مقال)
Information storage, retrieval and use, essential drug list, Rational drug use, National drug policy knowledge, Health profession acts and regulations, Medicines and regulatory acts, Introduction to drug/product registration, Ethical issues in product promotion.
ELECTIVES- 5221
A- Selected topics in drug design, elective (2+2.5)
مقرر اختياري (موضوعات مختارة في تصميم الأدوية(
Introduction to the fundamentals of drug design.
Selected topics in medicinal chemistry, the subject matter being drawn from the current literature.
B- Pharmaceutical Manufacturing , elective (2+2.5)
مقرر اختياري (تصنيع دوائي)
Problems encountered during manufacture of various pharmaceutical dosage forms and their treatments. Modern challenges in pharmaceutical industry in different areas, design and scaling up problems.
C- Selected topics in Pharmacology, elective (2+2.5)
مقرر اختياري (موضوعات مختارة في علم الأدوية)
Nonadrenergic noncholinergic transmission, drugs in liver and renal diseases, gene therapy and immunotherapy.
D- Selected topics in Forensic Pharmacognosy, elective (2+2.5)
مقرر إختياري (موضوعات مختارة في العقاقير الشرعية)
Plants and natural products that constitute potential health hazards. Drug dependence narcotic analgesics, psychoenergetics and hallucinogens of plant origin. Mycotoxins as serious threat to general health and safety of the community. Hairs and fibers as significant evidence in crime investigation.
ELECTIVES- 5222
A- Selected topics in Pharmaceutics, elective (2+2.5)
مقرر اختياري (موضوعات مختارة في الصيدلانيات)
Drug targeting, Novel drug delivery system, Pharmaceutical biotechnology, Radiopharmaceutics, Veterinary pharmacy.
B- geological technology and genetic engineering, elective (2+2.5)
مقرر اختياري (هندسة وراثية وتكنولوجيا بيولوجية)
The principles and practice of environmental , medical , food and beverage biotechnology, Discussion and presentations on genetic engineering dealing with safety, social , moral and ethical considerations.
C- Selected topics in Pharmaceutical Analysis, elective (2+2.5)
مقرر اختياري (موضوعات مختارة في الكيمياء التحليلية الصيدلية)
Theory and practice of selected modern methods used in pharmaceutical analysis and analysis of biological samples. A study of the methods used to determine stability characteristics of drugs.
D- Herbal Medicine, elective (2+2.5)
مقرر اختياري (طب الأعشاب)
The problem arising from lack of professional knowledge about drugs and the impact of herbal remedies on drug discovery. Guidelines for the phytochemical and biological screening of medicinal utilized in folk medicine and for registration of herbal remedies will be considered.
طبعاً هذا فقط نموذج وجدته في الإنترنت وتختلف المناهج من كلية إلى كلية ولكن الأساسيات متشابهة تقريباً ..
ومو شرط إنه مدة الدراسة تكون 6 سنوات في كليات تقدر تخلص الدراسة فيها

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